Gateways o Puertas de Enlace

Al mirar una PC sobre el mobiliario para comercios, quienes no tenemos demasiada idea sobre informática, en ocasiones nos cuesta identificar cuál es la puerta de enlace. Pues bien, una pasarela de aplicación o puerta de enlace, también conocida como gateway, puede definirse como un sistema de hardware/software que sirve para interconectar redes, permitiéndoles funcionar como una interfaz entre distintos protocolos de red para poder comunicarlos. Ahora que ya sabemos lo que son y podemos reconocerlos, dejemos a un lado el asunto de la vitrina para comercios en Madrid, y prosigamos viendo sus principales características y funciones.
Cuando una pasarela es contactada por un usuario remoto, ésta se ocupa de examinar dicha solicitud para constatar si concuerda con las reglas que han sido configuradas por el administrador de red. De ser así, la pasarela procede a interconectar las dos redes. Por consiguiente, la información no es transmitida de manera directa, sino que es traducida para asegurar que haya una continuidad entre ambos protocolos.
Aparte de ofrecer una interfaz entre dos redes de diferentes tipos, el sistema brinda seguridad extra, pues la información en su totalidad es inspeccionada con minuciosidad, siendo en ocasiones guardada en un registro de eventos.
Una de las mayores desventajas de dicho sistema reside en que es necesario que haya disponible una aplicación de estas características para cada servicio, como HTTP o FTP, por dar un ejemplo.
Los gateways son básicamente dispositivos y/o programas cuya función es posibilitar la comunicación entre redes distintas. Por ese motivo, se ubican en las entradas y salidas de las redes.
Para que la comunicación sea posible llevan a cabo la adaptación de protocolos, eso explica el porqué son también conocidos como traductores de protocolos. Aunque la denominación más común en lengua castellana es la de “pasarelas”. Algunos de los protocolos con los que habitualmente trabajan son IPX, ARCNET, TCP/IP, SONET, ATM y Ethernet, entre otros.
Las capas superiores del modelo OSI, yendo desde el nivel de aplicación al de transporte o a otros niveles inferiores, constituyen su área de acción. A pesar de que numerosos gateways realizan la adaptación de tal forma que, a la vez, subsanan las diferencias a nivel de infraestructuras que puedan haber entre dos redes diametralmente opuestas. Debido a su amplia área de trabajo, se pueden hallar en el mercado diversos productos en cuyo nombre incluyen el término “Gateway”. Por lo que en muchos casos puede suceder que no sean en verdad gateways, sino que, por ejemplo, se trate de routers que trabajan sobre TCP/IP.
Funciones

Tal como explicamos al comienzo, la principal función de las pasarelas de aplicación es posibilitar la comunicación entre redes, basándose en la traducción o adaptación de protocolos, para lo cual posee duplicada la pila de protocolos OSI. Lógicamente, dicha traducción ralentiza el traspaso de paquetes de una a otra red.
Al recibir los datos encapsulados de un protocolo, los gateways se encargan de ir desencapsulándolos hasta el nivel más alto, para luego proceder a encapsular los datos en el otro protocolo, yendo desde el nivel más superior al nivel más inferior, para dejar nuevamente la información en la red tras completarse la traducción. Según el tipo de gateway variará el nivel más bajo de la capa OSI en el que trabajará, pero en general es el nivel de transporte o el físico. Ese es el motivo por el cual muchas puertas de enlace pueden desempeñar además funciones de encaminamiento.
Otras funciones que puede incluir un gateway son:
– Firewall: Dado que un gateway constituye un punto de entrada para datos que proceden de otras redes externas, es el mejor punto para ubicar un firewall, para proteger a la red de destino del ingreso de códigos nocivos.
– Servidor proxy: Dada su ubicación estratégica, en un gateway también se puede situar un servidor proxy, que permite acceder a documentos externos a una red cuando lo solicita alguno de los equipos que se encuentra en el interior de esa red. En este caso, tras obtener el documento, el gateway se lo sirve al equipo que realizó la solicitud.
– Servidores de dominios de nombre (DNS): Similar a la función anterior, un equipo de una red solicita datos de una dirección perteneciente a un servidor que es externo a dicha red. La función del gateway consiste en traduciar esa dirección lógica a su respectivo valor físico.
Formas de un gateway
Varias son las formas que puede tener un gateway. En efecto, puede ser portátil, que como su nombre lo indica son ordenadores portátiles; placa base para PC, que reúne las características de una puerta de enlace con las del resto de placas base; torre, micro torre y sobremesa, cuya forma exterior se asemeja a la de los ordenadores; small form factor, su CPU es más pequeño de lo común y puede ser de torre o sobremesa; all-in-one, pasarelas de aplicación que poseen la CPU integrada en el monitor u otro componente; y para rack o similares, pequeños dispositivos externos al ordenador que pueden meterse en un rack.
Características
El número de usuarios para los que está diseñado un gateway es de aproximadamente  500 usuarios, aunque en caso de usarse una estructura a dos niveles esta cifra puede ser superada.
En cuanto al número de puertos, lejos de lo que se podría llegar a pensar, por lo general son entre 2 y 4.
La tasa de transferencia de datos depederá de los tipos de redes a conectar. Por dar un ejemplo, si una red realiza su conexión por RTB, esta no superará los 56 kbps. Debido a ello, los gateways ofrecen rangos muy variables de tasas de transferencia, que pueden ir  desde 2400 bps hasta 100 Mbps o más.
Memoria y procesador, en general concuerdan con el equipamiento que poseen los ordenadores estándares. Así, por ejemplo, es posible ver una RAM de 256 MB o un procesador Pentium 4 a 2.66 Ghz.
Algunos gateways, que comúnmente son de pequeño tamaño, tienen una forma que posibilita que puedan apilarse de manera análoga arriba y abajo de otros dispositivos. Inclusive, existen gateways que poseen anclajes para permitir su acoplamiento en el interior de un rack.
Hay gateways que contienen indicadores LED, generalmente en la parte frontal, para indicar la conexión con la red, así como la alimentación, actividad, conexión, el estado del puerto (si está descolgado o llamando), etc.

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